Aggression and persecution are brought about as a result of a refusal by the character to respect basic human 12 R. The result is usually the same: Factors influencing the relationships between victims and aggressors The action of a play is dependent on the nature of the characters who are portrayed there, who act as vectors of discourse and emotions. And, in a sense, this is also what we always are — unjust, inadequately caring and attentive, out of control. Columbia University Press, The heroes are trapped in a cycle of violence, in which they seem to wander incapable of finding a way out. Garnier, , p.

Suis-je leur empereur seulement pour leur plaire? This section has attempted to show that power is not a static theme in Racinian tragedy, but a very dynamic one; owing to its tyrannical nature, those who have it abuse it, through the 32 L. If the characters could not successfully liberate themselves from royal control, their personal dramas could nevertheless show how much they longed to be released from the authority of another. Spencer shows that power brings misery to both those who possess it and those who are its victims, for her: The Atrides are targets of celestial vengeance, whose origin can be traced back to the sun le Soleil when he discovered the illegitimate love between Venus and Mars. The same sequence of events is seen in Andromaque where the characters are constantly faced with the frustrations of the Other and conflict arises from the incompatibility of these frustrations.

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Andromaque presents three distinct and conflicting interests based on passion. The discourse taking place between these two characters can be considered as a dialogue de sourds, where each individual assesses the facts differently and they do not hear each other. His doom or safety hangs on what he now will say. Justification of Study Owing to the abundance of critical perspectives on the work of Racine, any endeavour to make a study of his work that is original or ground-breaking is bound to be difficult.


In this section, we have attempted to show the importance of space as a conditioning element of Racinian socialisation.

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That is to say, there is a discrepancy between what the audience knows they are able to interpret things differently and what some of the characters know because they have only partial knowledge. Levinas dissertstion ethics as primarily philosophy, instead of epistemology or ontology.

The term actually refers to more than the ordinary understanding of the term. Encounters with the Vulnerable Self, London: Presses Universitaires de France, Klincksieck,p. Gallimard, 6 Jean Racine: Every one of us is guilty before all, for everyone and everything, and I more than others […] Just as Sartre argues that either one is totally free or one is not free at all, so Levinas argues that either one is responsible for everything or one has refused responsibility.

dissertation britannicus racine

The Racinian characters are unwilling to establish such ethical relationships; they are constantly planning to persecute others, as we see in the following example from Bajazet: He rids himself of Agrippine because he does not want to continue being beholden to her, despite the fact that she is his mother and therefore owed his love and loyalty, which he has come to see as an intolerable burden.

Factors influencing the relationships between victims and aggressors The action of a play is dependent on the nature of the characters who are portrayed there, who act as vectors of discourse and emotions.

According to Artaud in The Theatre of Cruelty: Ere the sun set let him be gone from Rome. Burrhus see it done [7] Proceed Narcissus, fortune smiles again It is up to you to profit from the blessed occasion.

dissertation britannicus racine

Racinian passion becomes primitive when it leads the character to violence persecution and aggression and irrational behaviour. In conclusion, we can say that the play of words and linguistic strategies employed by the characters are an intrinsic part of the plots of Racinian plays. University of Durham, In Levinassian philosophy, to be persecuted is to be confronted by the face of the other person and called to respond; that response or willingness to respond entails the acknowledgement of a certain level of responsibility on the part of both the aggressor and their victim.


According to Phillips, the essence of speech is: There are twenty-eight occurrences of this term in Act 1 where it is predominantly associated with pain or suffering. Professionals with the rig The characters are tormented by the ambiguity of their feelings, the weight of heredity and history, ungovernable passions and the omnipresence of violence. It would mean, in effect, giving him the chance to survive on his own […].

The Seraglio becomes a conditioning element, that is to say it provides a fertile environment for aggression to breed. The Sovereign is the figurehead of this pyramid. We will now turn to an analysis racone the dynamics of the power relationships in Andromaque.

dissertation britannicus racine

Reconsidering Philosophical Hermeneutics, California: Without this power, she considers herself to be of no worth: Il vous doit son amour. This is important to our understanding of the nature of the Racinian character because, according to Scherer: We consider these excessive passions as the meanings assigned to the creature by the writer, a creature that modifies the behaviour and character of the individual into another, whose main concern becomes the fulfilment of the passion.

In the play, passion alienates the characters and leads them to gradually deviate from the path of reason and this deviation through passion is expressed almost entirely through speech.